Category Archives: Human Development

Chart of critical periods of human development

Chart of critical periods of human development

Chart of critical periods of human development

Fetal development can be affected by environmental exposures occurring to either parent prior to conception, to the mother post conception, or to the fetus.

This course of human development from fertilization to birth is extremely complex. A huge number of biochemical, physical, and organizational processes must be precisely coordinated to assure orderly development, maintain health, and avoid disease. Because of the complexity, there are numerous opportunities for “things to go wrong.” Children at prenatal developmental stages may be uniquely vulnerable to influences that have little impact at other points in their development or on adults.

The Chart reviews crucial stages in human development from fertilization through birth and the implications of environmental and non-environmental insults or exposures at those different stages. It focuses on the prenatal developmental stages during which children may be particularly sensitive to exposures to agents or may be at risk of adverse effects that would not occur if exposures occurred during adulthood. Identifying these “critical” periods is essential to developing strategies that protect children from adverse health effects associated with environmental and non-environmental exposures.

(Edited from: Altshuler, Kara; Berg, Michael; Frazier, Linda M.; Laurenson, Jim; Longstreth, Janice; Mendez, William; and Molgaard, Craig A. | Critical Periods in Development | Office of Children’s Health Protection, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | OCHP Paper Series on Children’s Health and the Environment | Paper 2003-2 | February 2003.)

 
Chart Sources

— | Alcohol Use in Pregnancy (Webpage) | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Updated: October 6, 2010 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/fasd/alcohol-use.html.

— | Chapter 19 Rubella; Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (The Pink Book), 12th Edition | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA | Updated: April 15, 2011 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/rubella.html.

— | Emergency Preparedness and Response, Radiation and Pregnancy: A Fact Sheet for the Public | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Reviewed March 29, 2011 Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.bt.cdc.gov/radiation/prenatal.asp.

— | Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Disorders (Webpage) | U. S. Department of Health and Human Services; National Institutes of Health; The National Human Genome Research Institute | Updated: February 27, 2012 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.genome.gov/19016930.

— | High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy (Webpage) | U.S. Department of Health & Human Services; National Institutes of Health; National Heart Lung and Blood Institute | Not dated | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/hbp/hbp_preg.htm.

— | Impact on Females | American Heart Association (Webpage) | Updated: Mon, 24 Jan 2011 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/TheImpactofCongenitalHeartDefects/Impact-on-Females_UCM_307113_Article.jsp#.T1gBjt0SCAk.

— | NAEPP Working Group Report on Managing Asthma During Pregnancy: Recommendations for Pharmacologic Treatment, Update 2004 | U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; National Institutes of Health; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute: Bethesda, MD | NIH Publication No. 05-5236 | March 2005 | Available @ http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung/asthma/astpreg/astpreg_full.pdf | Accessed February 27, 2012.

— | Pregnancy and Cancer (Webpage) | American Society of Clinical Oncology | May 2011 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.cancer.net/patient/Coping/Emotional+and+Physical+Matters/Sexual+and+Reproductive+Health/Pregnancy+and+Cancer.

— | Pregnancy and Childbirth (Webpage) | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Reviewed: October 10, 2007 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/perinatal/index.htm.

— | Pregnancy and Lupus (Webpage) | Lupus Foundation of America | No date | Accessed March 9, 2012 @ http://www.lupus.org/webmodules/webarticlesnet/templates/new_donate.aspx?articleid=314&zoneid=6.

— | Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot! (Webpage) | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Updated: February 27, 2012 | Accessed March 10, 2012 @ http://www.cdc.gov/Features/PregnancyAndFlu/.

— | Protect Your Baby for Life, When a Pregnant Woman Has Hepatitis B | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Publication No. 22-0432 | October 2010 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/HBV/PDFs/HepBPerinatal-ProtectWhenPregnant.pdf.

— | Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), STDs & Pregnancy – CDC Fact Sheet | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Updated: February 27, 2012 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.cdc.gov/std/pregnancy/STDFact-Pregnancy.htm.

— | Smoking during pregnancy (Webpage) | March of Dimes Foundation | April 2010 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/alcohol_smoking.html.

— | Thyroid Disease and Pregnancy | American Thyroid Association | 2005 | Available @ http://www.thyroid.org/patients/brochures/Thyroid_Dis_Pregnancy_broch.pdf | Accessed February 27, 2012.

— | Trying to get pregnant: Pregnancy after 35 (Webpage) | March of Dimes Foundation | May 2009 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.marchofdimes.com/pregnancy/trying_after35.html.

— | Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes and Pregnancy, Problems of Diabetes in Pregnancy (Webpage) | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Updated: June 7, 2010 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.cdc.gov/NCBDDD/pregnancy_gateway/diabetes-types.html.

— | Vaccines and Immunizations, Vaccines and Preventable Diseases: Varicella Vaccine – Q&As about Pregnancy | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Reviewed on June 1, 2009 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/varicella/vac-faqs-clinic-preg.htm.

Chang, Louise | Bipolar Disorder in Pregnancy | WebMD | Reviewed: July 13, 2010 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.webmd.com/bipolar-disorder/guide/bipolar-disorder-in-pregnancy.

Jaffe, D.J., | Pregnancy pointers for women with Schizophrenia | Schizophrenia.com | No date | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.schizophrenia.com/schizoph/NBDpreg.html.

Keller, Scott | Anemia in Pregnancy (Webpage) | WebMD | Reviewed: January 08, 2012 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.webmd.com/baby/anemia-in-pregnancy?page=2.

Krane, N Kevin; Feinfeld, Donald A; Talavera, Francisco; Legro, Richard S; Batuman, Vecihi | Renal Disease and Pregnancy, Pregnancy and Underlying Renal Disease (Webpage) | Medscape Reference | Updated: Mar 29, 2011 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/246123-overview#aw2aab6c15.

Nihira, Mikio A. | Health & Pregnancy: Drug Use and Pregnancy (Webpage) | WebMD | Reviewed: December 20, 2009 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.webmd.com/baby/drug-use-and-pregnancy?page=2.

Nilsson, E; Lichtenstein, P; Cnattingius, S; Murray, RM; Hultman, CM | Women with schizophrenia: pregnancy outcome and infant death among their offspring | Schizophrenia Research | Volume 58, Number 2-3, Pages 221 – 229 | December 1, 2002.

Rasmussen, Sonja A | Human Teratogens | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | June 26, 2011 | Available @ http://www.teratology.org/pubs/2011_human_teratogens_update.pdf | Accessed February 27, 2012.

Sanborn, M.; Kerr, K.J.; Sanin, L.H.; Cole, D.C.; Bassil, K.L.; Vakil, C. | Non-cancer health effects of pesticides, Systematic review and implications for family doctors | Canadian Family Physician | Volume 53, Number 10, Pages 1712 – 1720 | October 2007.

Staff | Antidepressants: Safe during pregnancy? (Webpage) | Mayo Clinic | January 10, 2012 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/antidepressants/DN00007.

Staff | Epilepsy and pregnancy: What you need to know (Webpage) | Mayo Clinic | July 30, 2011 | Accessed February 27, 2012 @ http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/pregnancy/PR00123.

Winchester, Paul D; Huskins, Jordan; Ying, Jun | Agrichemicals in surface water and birth defects in the United States | Acta Paediatrica | Volume 98, Number 4, Pages 664–669 | April 2009.